jueves, 16 de agosto de 2012

Los Austríacos (II) - Makart, Boeckl

Hans Makart

Hans Makart, grabado de / engraving by William Unger, c.1883

Hans Makart (28 de mayo de 1840, Salzburgo - 3 de octubre de 1884, Viena) fue un pintor de historia academista austriaco, diseñador y decorador. Es más conocido por su influencia sobre Gustav Klimt y otros artistas austriacos, pero en su propia época fue considerado como artista importante y fue una celebridad en la cultura elevada de Viena.

"Die fünf Sinne: Gefühl, Geruch / Los cinco sentidos: Tacto, Olfato / The five senses: Touch, Smell"
Óleos sobre lienzo / oils on canvas, 70 x 314 cm. c/u / each, 1872-1879
Östereichische Galerie Belvedere (Viena, Austria)

"Anna von Waldberg", óleo sobre tabla / oil on wood, 58 x 76 cm., 1883-1884
Carolino Augusteum, Salzburger Museum fur Kunst und Kulturge 
Museo de Salzburgo de Arte y Cultura (Salzburgo, Austria)

Makart recibió su entrenamiento en pintura en la Academia de Viena entre 1850 y 1851 de la mano de Johann Fischbach. Por aquél entonces, el arte alemán se regía por las reglas de un clasicismo enteramente intelectual y académico: dibujo claro y preciso y erudición en las imágenes eran estimados por sobre todo.
Makart, que era un mal dibujante pero tenía un amor apasionado y sensual por el color, no tardó en escapar a las rutina del dibujo de la escuela de arte. Sus instructores estimaron que carecía de cualquier talento y le forzaron a salir de la Academia.

"Der Tod der Kleopatra / La muerte de Cleopatra / Death of Cleopatra"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 255 x 191 cm., 1875
Staatliche Museen (Kassel, Alemania / Germany)

Fue entonces a Munich, y después de dos años de estudio independiente atrajo la atención de Karl Theodor von Piloty bajo cuya orientación, entre 1861 y 1865, desarrolló su estilo de pintura. Durante estos años Makart viajó a Londres, París y Roma para profundizar sus estudios. La primera imagen que pintó bajo Piloty, "Lavoisier en prisión", aunque se consideró tímida y convencional, atrajo la atención por su sentido de color.

"Der Triumph der Ariadne / El triunfo de Ariadna / The Triumph of Ariadne"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 784 x 476 cm., 1873-1874
Östereichische Galerie Belvedere (Viena, Austria)

"La plaga de Florencia / The Plague of Florence", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 103 x 204,5 cm.

En su próxima obra, "El caballero y las ninfas de agua", demostró por primera vez las cualidades decorativas a las que después sacrificó todo en sus obras. Su fama se consolidó al año siguiente con dos obras, "Cupidos modernos" y "La plaga en Florencia". Su pintura "Romeo y Julieta" fue comprada por el emperador austriaco para el Museo de Viena, y Makart fue invitado por la aristocracia a acercarse a Viena.

"Die Ernte / La cosecha / The Harvest", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 319,5 x 130 cm., 1871-72
Ostereichische Galerie Belvedere (Viena, Austria)

El estilo Makart, que determinó la cultura de una época entera en Viena, fue un esteticismo, tal como no se había visto antes y nunca se ha repetido hasta ahora. Llamado el mago de los colores, pintó en colores brillantes y formas fluidas, que pusieron el diseño y el esteticismo de la obra por delante de todo. A menudo para destacar la fuerza de sus colores introdujo asfalto en su pintura, lo que ha llevado a algún deterioro en sus pinturas durante los años. Las pinturas usualmente fueron en gran escala y producciones teatrales de temas históricos. Obras como La elección papel revela la habilidad de Makart en el uso audaz del color para expresar drama además de su capacidad como dibujante virtuoso.
Makart se interesó profundamente en la interaccion de todos los artes visuales y entonces en la implementación de la idea de la obra total de arte que dominó las discusiones sobre las artes en el siglo XIX. Esto fue el ideal que realizó en festividades magnificentes que organizó y centró alrededor de sí mismo. La parada Makart de 1879 fue la culminación de estos intentos.

"Moderne Amoretten / Cupidos modernos / Modern Cupids", 93 x 133 cm., c.1868
Ostereichische Galerie Belvedere (Viena, Austria)

Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 – October 3, 1884) was a 19th century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.
Makart was the son of a chamberlain at the Mirabell Palace, born in the former residence of the prince-archbishops of Salzburg. Initially, he received his training in painting at the Vienna Academy between 1850 and 1851 from Johann Fischbach. While in the Academy, German art was under the rule of a classicism, which was entirely intellectual and academic—clear and precise drawing, sculpturesque modelling, and pictorial erudition were esteemed above all. Makart, who was a poor draughtsman, but who had a passionate and sensual love of color, was impatient to escape the routine of art school drawing. For his fortune, he was found by his instructors to be devoid of all talent and forced to leave the Vienna Academy.
He went to Munich, and after two years of independent study attracted the attention of Karl Theodor von Piloty, under whose guidance, between 1861 and 1865 he developed his painting style. During these years, Makart also travelled to London, Paris and Rome to further his studies. The first picture he painted under Piloty, Lavoisier in Prison, though it was considered timid and conventional, attracted attention by its sense of color.

"Dora Fournier­Gabillon", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 94 x 145 cm., c.1879
Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien (Vienna, Austria)

"Ring des Nibelungen (Entwurf) / El anillo de los Nibelungos (estudio / study)"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 1870-72. Ostereichische Galerie Belvedere (Viena, Austria)

The "Makartstil", which determined the culture of an entire era in Vienna, was an aestheticism the likes of which hadn't been seen before him and has not been replicated to this day. Called the "magician of colors", he painted in brilliant colors and fluid forms, which placed the design and the aesthetic of the work before all else. Often to heighten the strength of his colors he introduced asphalt into his paint, which has led to some deterioration in his paintings over the years. The paintings were usually large-scale and theatrical productions of historical motifs. Works such as The Papal Election reveal Makart's skill in the bold use of color to convey drama as well as his later developed virtuoso draughtsmanship.
Makart was deeply interested in the interaction of all the visual arts and thus in the implementation of the idea of the "total work of art" which dominated discussions on the arts in the 19th century. This was the ideal which he realised in magnificent festivities which he organised and centred around himself. The 1879 Makart-parade was the culmination of these endeavors.

"Selbstporträt / Autorretrato / Self Portrait", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 52,5 x 64,5 cm., 1878
Carolino Augusteum, Salzburger Museum fur Kunst und Kulturge (Salzburgo, Austria)


Makart's work, like those of other academic artist's of the time, consisted of allegorical painting and history painting as seen in Catherina Carnaro, Dianas Hunt, The Entry of Charles V into Antwerp, Abundantia, Spring, Summer, The Death of Cleopatra, The Five Senses, and Bacchus and Ariadne. He was considered the Austrian rival to the French William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Within Austria, his nearest competitor was considered to be Hans Canon, and he was associated with the sculptor Viktor Tilgner, who travelled with him to Italy.

"Abundancia - Los dones de la Tierra / Abundantia ­- The Gifts of the Earth"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 447 x 162,5 cm., 1870
Museé d'Orsay (Paris, Francia / France)

"Abundancia - Los dones del Mar / Abundantia -­ The Gifts of the Sea"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 447 x 162,5 cm., 1870
Museé d'Orsay (Paris, Francia / France)

Aside from his clear influence on the academic art and high culture of Vienna at the time, Makart also influenced a range of painters and decorators who followed him, including many who rebelled against his style—the most notable being Gustav Klimt, who is said to have idolized him. Klimt's early style is based in historicism and has clear similarities to Makart's paintings. The entire decorative focus of Jugendstil, the Austrian Art Nouveau of which Klimt was a part, arose in an environment in which Makart had put the decorative aspects of art in the forefront. Some have also suggested that primacy of sexual symbolism in Jugendstil artworks also have an influence from the sensuality pushed in many of Makart's paintings.

"Retrato de una jóven / Portrait of a Young Woman"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 157 × 130 cm., 1882-1884. Museo Nacional (Varsovia, Polonia / Warsaw, Poland)

Más obras e información sobre Makart en / More works and information about Makart in:
WikipediaArt Renewal Center


Herbert Boeckl


Herbert Boeckl (Klagenfurt, 3 de junio de 1894 - Viena, 20 de enero de 1966) fue un pintor expresionista austríaco, perteneciente al Grupo de Viena.
En 1912 fue rechazado de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Viena, estudiando luego en la Universidad Politécnica y dando clases privadas con Adolf Loos. De 1914 a 1918 fue oficial en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Después de la guerra comenzó en la pintura como autodidacta. Viajó a Berlín y Palermo, pero sobre todo un viaje a París en 1923 contactó con el arte moderno. En 1927 realizó su primera gran exposición en la Secesión de Viena. De 1935 a 1939 fue profesor en la Facultad de Educación de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Viena (Allgemeine Malschule an der Akademie der bildenden Künste). Participó en las exposiciones de 1935 en Bruselas y de 1937 en París.

"Selbstbildnis / Autorretrato / Self Portrait", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 74 x 57 cm., 1948
Musée national d`art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou (Paris, Francia / France)


"Cadaver de hombre muerto / Corpse of a Dead Man", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 86 x 196 cm., 1931
Colección privada, Viena / Private Collection, Vienna.

"Caja torácica abierta / Open Ribcage", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 65 x 90 cm., 1931
Colección privada / Private Collection, Washington D.C. EE.UU. / USA

"Dos amigas / Two Friends", acuarela / watercolor, 36,2 x 48,6 cm., 1921
Colección privada / Private Collection (Viena, Austria)

Después de la guerra fue brevemente rector de la Academia de Viena. En la década de 1950 viajó a España, donde estudió intensivamente los frescos románicos para la realización en 1952 de la capilla Seckau de Estiria, una de sus principales obras. Asimismo, estancias en Grecia (1955) y Egipto (1959) influyeron en su obra.
En 1958 participó en la exposición de Bruselas y en 1959 en la de São Paulo. En 1950 y 1964 representó a su país en la Bienal de Venecia. Desde 1952 el artista fue miembro honorario, y desde 1960 miembro de pleno derecho de la Secesión de Viena. De 1962 a 1965 fue de nuevo rector de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Viena.

"Erzberg", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 116,5 x 136,3 cm., 1942
Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz, Austria

"Liegender Frauenakt / Mujer acostada / Woman Lying", 1919
Leopold Museum (Viena, Austria)

"El Wörthersee", acuarela / watercolor, 48,5 x 65,5 cm., 1928
Colección privada / Private Collection (Washington D.C., EE.UU. / USA)

Herbert Boeckl was born in Klagenfurt, Carinthia, on 3 June. He made his first attempts at painting at an early age.
Rejected by the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, he decided to study architecture, though never losing sight of his ambition to be a painter. He first showed paintings at a joint exhibition. The established architect Adolf Loos introduced him into the artistic Viennese circle to which Egon Schiele, Carl Moll and Oskar Kokoschka also belonged.
In 1914 Boeckl was called up for war service on the Italian front; he created several war motifs.

"Leda", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 146 x 181., 1934. Colección privada / Private Collection

"Los reyes magos", acuarela / watercolor, 49,7 x 36 cm., 1919. Viktor Fogarassy (Graz, Austria)

After the war, he abandoned his studies and moved into a small studio in Klagenfurt. Egon Schiele, much taken with a portrait by Boeckl exhibited in the Klagenfurt Künstlerhaus, recommended him to the well-known Viennese art dealer Gustav Nebehay. A contract with Nebehay gave Boeckl financial security.
In 1919 Boeckl married Maria Plahna, his favourite nude model during his early years. Boeckl's work received a poor reception from the Klagenfurt public. He moved to Vienna, though frequently residing also in Klagenfurt.
In the decade of 1920's, during summers spent regularly in Carinthia, the splendid countryside with its lakes and mountains inspired Boeckl to paint many landscapes. He also painted portraits, often of his wife or his children (whose number grew to nine), as well as self-portraits. Boeckl took an eight-month study trip to Sicily in 1923, then going on to Berlin and Paris. He painted landscapes and still lifes which constitute the peak of his early work.

"Errettung des ertrinkenden Heiligen Petrus aus dem See Genesareth /
San Pedro rescatado del Lago Galileo / St. Peter rescued from Lake Galileo", fresco
Catedral de Maria Saal, Comunidad de Maria Saal, Distrito Klagenfurt-Land (Carinthia, Austria)

"San Pedro rescatado... / St. Peter Rescued... " (detalle / detail)

"Engelkapelle - Fresko der Abtei Seckau / Capilla de los Ángeles, Fresco en la Abadía de Seckau /
Chapel of the Angels, Fresco in Abbey of Seckau", 1952-

In 1927 Boeckl's first major exhibition in the Vienna Secession. The Österreichische Galerie purchased several pictures. One year later, the Boeckl family settled in Vienna once more, and the painter took a studio at Argentinierstrasse 41, where he worked until his stroke in 1964. 
In 1934 Boeckl received the Major Austrian State Award, and in 1935 he was appointed professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna; this also gave him financial security. He participated in the World Exhibition in Brussels.
He travelled to Paris, Rome and Venice during 1937-38.
During the Third Reich, the painter withdrew as far as possible from public cultural life, and worked in isolation. His works were not publicly exhibited.

"Naturaleza muerta con frutas y cráneo de animal / Still Life with Fruit and Skull of an Animal"
Lápiz y acuarela / pencil and watercolor, 48,7 x 61,7 cm., 1929.
Viktor Fogarassy (Graz, Austria)

"Desnudo reclinado / Reclined Nude", acuarela / watercolor, 36 x 48,5 cm., 1921.
Colección privada / Private Collection (Viena, Austria)

Boeckl was appointed rector of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna in 1945-46. The "Abendakt" (evening classes in nude painting), which he directed from 1939 until 1966, acquired legendary significance as an obligatory exercise for all master-class students. In 1947 the Metten Verlag (publishing house) in Vienna brought out a first comprehensive monograph on Boeckl.
He participated in the Venice Biennale in 1950. Two years later, work started on the frescoes in the "Angel" chapel in Seckau.


"Desnudo femenino de pie, de espaldas / Female Nude Standing Back", carboncillo / charcoal, 50 x 38,4 cm., 1920
Colección privada / Private Collection (Viena, Austria)

"Retrato de / Portrait of Maria Boeckl", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 106 x 77 cm., 1937

Boeckl received the Major Austrian State Award for the second time in 1953, Guggenheim Prize (1957), Klimt Award from the Vienna Secession (1960) and was awarded the Arts & Sciences Gold Medal, as well as the Gold Ring of Honour of the City of Vienna (1964).
Boeckl died on 20 January 1966, following a stroke suffered in Vienna.
Biographic review from here

"Porträt / Retrato de / Portrait of Heinrich Benesch II", óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 86 x 71 cm., 1931

"San Vicente / St. Vincent", acuarela / watercolor, 36 x 48,5 cm., 1918. Viktor Fogarassy (Graz, Austria)

"Pariser Selbstbildnis / Autorretrato parisino / Parisian Self Portrait"
Óleo sobre lienzo / oil on canvas, 61 x 50 cm., 1923. Österreichische Galerie Belvedere (Viena, Austria)

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